Utilities and Financials — unlike Industrials — are not evaluated using sales, current assets or current liabilities.
Graham wrote the following on the subject of analyzing Utilities and Financials.
1. Adequate Size of the Enterprise - not less than $50 million of total assets for a public utility.
Note: About $250 million of total assets today, when adjusted for inflation.
2. A Sufficiently Strong Financial Condition - For public utilities the debt should not exceed twice the stock equity (at book value).
The Public-Utility “Solution”
We exclude one criterion from our tests of public-utility stocks—namely, the ratio of current assets to current liabilities. The working-capital factor takes care of itself in this industry as part of the continuous financing of its growth by sales of bonds and shares. We do require an adequate proportion of stock capital to debt.
Investing in Stocks of Financial Enterprises
We have no very helpful remarks to offer in this broad area of investment—other than to counsel that the same arithmetical standards for price in relation to earnings and book value be applied to the choice of companies in these groups as we have suggested for industrial and public-utility investments.
Serenity's Classic Graham Screener follows Graham's standard 17-rule Value Investing framework.
The Advanced Graham Screener has additional filters which — when used in combination with the standard Graham rules — allow for the screening of Utilities and Financials.
Utilities and Financials are therefore identified using Total Assets and Equity÷Debt on Serenity, just as Graham recommended.
A Sample Screening of Utilities and Financials
The filter values here are:Earnings Stability: 100%
Dividend Record: 100%
Earnings Growth: 100%
Graham Number(%): 100%
Total Assets: 250
Equity ÷ Debt: 50%
Source (Analyzed by): Serenity
Also, considering today's bond yields, a Graham Number(%) of 70% is sufficient for a Defensive grade stock to clear Graham's criteria.
Note: The rules for Utilities and Financials are an advanced customization of the core Defensive rules, and so not supported by the free Classic Graham Screener.
Utilities and Financials for Enterprising Investors
The example above is based on Graham's own instructions for adjusting the Defensive criteria for Utilities and Financials. The Total Assets and Equity÷Debt filters could also be used — instead of Assets / Liabilities and Assets / Debt — to similarly adjust the criteria for Enterprising grade stocks, even though this was not specifically mentioned by Graham.
Value Investing 101 provides a list of all standard preloads that can be quickly applied to Serenity's Graham screeners.